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About Family Tree Implementation

Discussion in 'Breeder Discussion' started by Oliver Rutishauser, Aug 2, 2023.

  1. Family Trees are a rather complicated type of graphs. Common trees are build on a single parent to child relationship, while the child nodes of a family tree have a pair of nodes as their parents. This increases the number of possible combinations from linear to O(n2.) Besides, it requires an additional data structure to represent the pair of parents, or the litter.

    Here we focus on a biological inheritance of signs. The challenge is that the signs can be recessive or dominant, and the dominant signs can’t be directly observed. Namely, if an animal possesses a recessive sign, one can be sure that the animal’s chromosomes both have the recessive genes (aa.) But when the animal possesses a dominant sign, the chromosomes may have two dominant genes (AA,) or a mixture of one recessive and one dominant genes (aA.) The recessive gene is hidden, but it will actualize itself in future generations. Our goal is to reconstruct the exact gene sets from the observed signs.

    We also address a problem of selecting against harmful recessive genes. Having reconstructed the exact gene combinations, we can exclude not only the dogs with recessive genes (aa) from the breeding process, but also dogs with hidden recessive genes (aA,) this will decrease the total number of ill dogs in the population. Finally, we introduce a method of active selection, which can decrease the number of ill dogs even further.
  2. Dog breeding methods also have drawbacks. Its systematic application concentrates not only desired genes, but also the hereditary predisposition for undesired traits. The problem is that harmful genes are being spread while successive generations display only a very limited part of these in the offspring. For every harmful trait the bulk of the unwanted genes is hidden away in carriers. We do not notice their damaging effects until later – many generations down the line, by which time the harmful genes have become so widespread that our selection is virtually powerless. On top of that, hereditary problems involving more complex transmission patterns cannot be combated with this system of individual selection at all.

    As soon as we are confronted with a genetic problem the most logical step is to select against it. Via our selection we exclude from breeding dogs that carry undesired genes. In this way we lower the frequency of those genes in the group of animals we use as parents. Thus, we reduce the risk that in the next generation animals are born that suffer the same ailment. Selection is a breeding instrument by which we can alter the genetic composition of populations.

    Against the background of the above we run into another problem. The tendency in modern breeding is to make much use of dogs (especially males) that score well in terms of conformation or performance. These are dogs that display outstanding breed-typical qualities, and meet the health requirements as stipulated for the breed. These dogs, it is believed, are they that will provide essential contributions to further development (improvement) of the breed. The idea is that their ‘superior genetic make-up’ should be spread throughout the population with almost no restriction. The problem that these dogs have in common with any other dog (or any other mammal) is that they are carriers for a large number of genetic deviations and disorders. Mind you, as far as we can see they are entirely healthy. Nevertheless, like any other individual, they bring with them the usual genetic load. For every characteristic of which they are ‘carrier’ they will pass on the harmful gene to half of their children. These are dogs that, just like any other dog in the population, can cause a breed-specific problem if we make disproportionate use of them. [Gubbels, 2002]
  3. Revelator

    Revelator Big Dog

    Chill out bro, you're doin' too much for a first post...
  4. ziggy311

    ziggy311 Big Dog

    This is how you implement families along with each other to get a more well rounded bulldog.
    Star from scratch with a working dog. Doesn't matter how he's bred just that he works and meet your standards.
    Next breed him to a few females and find the ones off the initial dog that meets your standards.
    Continue process. Once your family has peaked out , that means you continue to get the same results yet it still lacks in some desired traits,( around 4 generations) add pure family bred dogs that family is known for the trait you desire. Continue process of step 1 .
    I used "3" at a time .
    To start initial foundation , blended to get a solid foundation , then added as needed.
    It's all just about what are your standards but breed to pure families to get a better chance at getting desired traits vs a dog that is not bred as tight. No matter how great any dog is , a pure one based on that family will pass on genes even more and longer than a loose bred dog on that family.


    It never has an end to it if you don't want it too.
    You can do more than one branch at a time such as one like this one

    http://apbt.online-pedigrees.com/modules.php?name=Public&file=printPedigree&dog_id=453496 .

    These are how you implement families with each other from hands on experience.
    che and david63 like this.
  5. che

    che Top Dog

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